Having looked at all the aspects of setting from the general to the specific, how does one go about using setting in their story?
One way is to create an atmosphere. We've all read stories where there is a house described that embodies spooky feelings. That is one way but setting can also be used to contradict the emotional content of the story. Setting can show the reader in a foretelling way when something good or bad is about to happen.
Setting also can be used to establish a character. How he or she feels about a setting can create a mood. Does the place bring back memories of happier or less happy times. This is quite possible.
Atmosphere and mood are two ways to use setting. At times the setting can become almost another character in the story raising emotions in the reader. Memories of the reader that they can carry into the story. A hospital might bring certain feelings in the reader, perhaps of sadness or happiness.
So choose your settings with care and milk them for everything you can draw from the location. But also remember finding the perfect words to bring the setting to life is important. Don't bog your reader down with pages and pages of describing the setting. Find those words and objects that are telling and convey what you mean to say.